Glossary




A

Authorization

means permission for generation, handling, collection, reception, treatment, transport, storage, recycling, reprocessing, recovery, reuse and disposal of hazardous wastes granted under sub-rule (4) of rule 5

Adhesive

An adhesive is any substance applied to the surfaces of materials that binds them together and resists separation.The term "adhesive" may be used interchangeably with glue, cement, mucilage, or paste.

B

Basel Convention

is the United Nations Environment Programme Convention on the Control of Tran boundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal.

C

Central Pollution Control Board

means the Central Pollution Control Board constituted under sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 (6 of 1974).

Capable

by any means, after disposal, of yielding another material, e.g., Leachate, which possesses any of the characteristics listed above.

Corrosives

Substances or wastes which, by chemical action, will cause severe damage when in contact with living tissue, or, in the case of leakage, will materially damage, or even destroy, other goods or the means of transport; they may also cause other hazards.

Capable

by any means, after disposal, of yielding another material, e.g., Leachate, which possesses any of the characteristics listed above.

Cleaning

“Cleaning” is the removal of the stuff that we usually call “dirt.” It may consist of solid or liquid constituents.

Concentration

Concentration is defined as the number of moles of a solute in a volume of the solution. In case of mineral processing concentration means the increase of the percentage of the valuable mineral in the concentrate.

D

Disposal

means any operation which does not lead to recycling, recovery or reuse and includes physic chemical, biological treatment, incineration and disposal in secured landfill.

Drilling operation

Drilling is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut or enlarge a hole of circular cross-section in solid materials. The drill bit is a rotary cutting tool, often multipoint. The bit is pressed against the work piece and rotated at rates from hundreds to thousands of revolutions per minute. This forces the cutting edge against the work piece, cutting off chips (swarf) from the hole as it is drilled.

Degreasing

Removal of fat, grease, or oil from a surface, generally through the use of hot water, steam, alkaline cleaners, or organic solvents.

Distillation

Distillation is a process of separating the component substances from a liquid mixture by selective evaporation and condensation.

E

Export

with its grammatical variations and cognate expressions, means taking out of India to a place outside India.

Exporter

means any person under the jurisdiction of the exporting country who exports hazardous waste including the country, which exports hazardous waste.

Environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes

means taking all steps required to ensure that the hazardous wastes are managed in a manner which shall protect health and the environment against the adverse effects which may result from such waste.

Environmentally sound technologies

means any technology approved by the Central Government from time to time.

Explosive

An explosive substance or waste is a solid or liquid substance or waste (or mixture of substances or wastes) which is in itself capable by chemical reaction of producing gas at such a temperature and pressure and at such speed as to cause damage to the surroundings.

Ecotoxic

Substances or wastes which if released present or may present immediate or delayed adverse impacts to the environment by means of bioaccumulation and/or toxic effects upon biotic systems.

Emulsion

An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (nonmixable or unblendable). Emulsions are part of a more general class of two-phase systems of matter called colloids.

F

facility

means any establishment wherein the processes incidental to the handling, collection, reception, treatment, storage, recycling, recovery, reuse and disposal of hazardous wastes are carried out.

Form

means a form appended to these rules.

Flammable Liquids

The word “flammable” has the same meaning as “inflammable”. Flammable liquids are liquids, or mixtures of liquids, or liquids containing solids in solution or suspension (for example, paints, varnishes, lacquers, etc. but not including substances or wastes otherwise classified on account of their dangerous characteristics) which give off a flammable vapour at temperatures of not more than 60.5°C, closed-cup test, or not more than 65.5°C, open-cup test. (Since the results of open-cup tests and of closed-cup tests are not strictly comparable and even individual results by the same test are often variable, regulations varying from the above figures to make allowance for such differences would be within the spirit of this definition).

Flammable Solids

Solids, or waste solids, other than those classed as explosives, which under conditions encountered in transport are readily combustible, or may cause or contribute to fire through friction.

G

Galvanizing

It is the process of applying a protective zinc coating to steel or iron, to prevent rusting. The most common method is hot-dip galvanization, in which parts are submerged in a bath of molten zinc.

H

hazardous waste

means any waste which by reason of any of its physical, chemical, reactive, toxic, flammable, explosive or corrosive characteristics causes danger or is likely to cause danger to health or environment, whether alone or when in contact with other wastes or substances, and shall include-

means any waste which by reason of any of its physical, chemical, reactive, toxic, flammable, explosive or corrosive characteristics causes danger or is likely to cause danger to health or environment, whether alone or when in contact with other wastes or substances, and shall include-

  • Waste specified under column (3) of Schedule-I.

  • Wastes having constituents specified in Schedule-II if their concentration is equal to or more than the limit indicated in the said Schedule.

  • Wastes specified in Part A or Part B of the Schedule-III in respect of import or export of such wastes in accordance with rules 12, 13 and 14 or the wastes other than those specified in Part A or Part B if they possess any of the hazardous characteristics specified in Part C of that Schedule.

Hazardous waste site

means a place of collection, reception, treatment, storage of hazardous wastes and its disposal to the environment which is approved by the competent authority.

Hardening of steel

Increasing the hardness of steel by heat treatment. This normally implies heating the steel to a required temperature and quenching in a suitable medium, e.g. oil or water.

I

import

with its grammatical variations and cognate expressions, means bringing into India from a place outside India.

Importer

means an occupier or any person who imports hazardous waste.

Infectious substances

Substances or wastes containing viable micro organisms or their toxins which are known or suspected to cause disease in animals or humans.

Incineration

Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materials.

J

Judgment

In law, a judgment is a decision of a court regarding the rights and liabilities action or proceeding. Judgments also generally provide the court's explanation of why it has chosen to make a particular court order.

Juvenile water

It is water that has come to the earth surface from great depths for the first time. It is derived from magma.

Jaw crusher

A machine in which rock is broken by the action of steel plates.

K

Kyoto protocol

This the first substantial agreement to set greenhouse gas emission limits in 1997. The Kyoto Protocol is an important step towards achieving the aim of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change [FCCC], that of preventing dangerous anthropogenic or human-made interference with the climate system.

L

Liberation of toxic gases in contact with air or water

Substances or wastes which, by interaction with air or water, are liable to give off toxic gases in dangerous quantities.

M

Manifest

means transporting document prepared and signed by the occupier or his representative authorized in accordance with the provisions of these rules.

Molecular sieves

A molecular sieve is a material with very small holes of precise and uniform size. These holes are small enough to block large molecules, while allowing small molecules to pass. Many molecular sieves are used as desiccants. Some examples include activated charcoal and silica gel

N

National Green Tribunal

It is a specialized body equipped with the necessary expertise to handle environmental disputes involving multi-disciplinary issues. NGT work for disposal of cases relating to environmental protection and conservation of forests and other natural resources including enforcement of any legal right relating to environment and giving relief and compensation for damages to persons and property and for matters connected there with or incidental there to.

Noxious gases

Poisonous gases that can harm people and the environment. Some gases have a strong smell, for example sulphur dioxide and methane, while others, such as carbon monoxide, do not have any smell at all.

Natural resources

Valuable, naturally occurring items such as plants, animals, minerals, water and air that are used by people to help make things such as energy, food, clothing, and buildings.

O

Occupier

in relation to any factory or premises, means a person who has, control over the affairs of the factory or the premises and includes in relation to any hazardous waste the person in possession of the hazardous waste.

Operator of disposal facility

means a person who owns or operates a facility for collection, reception, treatment, storage or disposal of hazardous wastes.

Oxidizing

Substances or wastes which, while in themselves not necessarily combustible, may, generally by yielding oxygen cause, or contribute to, the combustion of other materials.

Organic Peroxides

Organic substances or wastes which contain the bivalent-O-O-structure are thermally unstable substances which may undergo exothermic self-accelerating decomposition.

P

Poisons (Acute)

Substances or wastes liable either to cause death or serious injury or to harm health if swallowed or inhaled or by skin contact.

Petrochemical

Chemical obtained either directly from cracking (pyrolysis), or indirectly from chemical processing, of petroleum Oil or natural gas. Major petrochemicals are acetylene, benzene, ethane, ethylene, methane, propane, and hydrogen, from which hundreds of other chemicals are derived. These derivatives are used as elastomers, fibers, plasticizers, and solvents, and as feedstock for production of thousands of other products.

Pyrolysis

It is a thermo chemical decomposition of organic material at elevated temperatures in the absence of oxygen (or any halogen). It involves the simultaneous change of chemical composition and physical phase, and is irreversible.

Petroleum refining

An oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, keroseneand liquefied petroleum gas.

Particulates

Matter in the form of minute separate particles. "sooty particulates from diesel exhausts"

Polishing

Polishing is the process of creating a smooth and shiny surface by rubbing it or using a chemical action, leaving a surface with a significant specular reflection

Plating

A thin layer of metal that has been added to the outside of something.

Q

Quantitative Analysis

The process of determining the quality of element present.

Quality

It is the nature and not the amount, of material.

Quality Control

Systematic setting, check and operation designed to maintain steady working conditions in continuous process.

R

Recycler or Reprocessor or actual user

means an occupier who procures and processes hazardous waste for recycling or recovery or re-use.

Recycling

means reclamation and reprocessing of hazardous waste in an environmentally sound manner for the original purpose or for other purposes.

Reuse

means use of hazardous waste for the purpose of its original use or other use.

Recovery

means any operation in the recycling activity wherein specific materials are recovered.

Residues

Something that remains after a part is removed, disposed of, or used; remainder; rest; remnant

S

Schedule

means a Schedule appended to these rules.

State Government

in relation to a Union territory means, the Administrator thereof appointed under article 239 of the Constitution.

State Pollution Control Board

means the State Pollution Control Board or the Pollution Control Committee constituted under sub-section (1) of section 4 of the Water(Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974(6 of 1974).

Storage

means storing any hazardous waste for a temporary period, at the end of which such waste is processed or disposed of.

Substances or wastes liable to spontaneous combustion

Substances or wastes which are liable to spontaneous heating under normal conditions encountered in transport, or to heating up on contact with air, and being then liable to catch fire.

Substances or wastes which, in contact with water emit flammable gases

Substances or wastes which, by interaction with water, are liable to become spontaneously flammable or to give off flammable gases in dangerous quantities.

Staining

Staining is an auxiliary technique used in microscopy to enhance contrast in the microscopic image. Stains and dyes are frequently used in biology and medicine to highlight structures in biological tissues for viewing, often with the aid of different microscopes.

Separation process

It is a method to achieve any mass transfer phenomenon that converts a mixture of substances into two or more distinct product mixtures (which may be referred to as fractions), at least one of which is enriched in one or more of the mixture's constituents.

Skimming

Skimming is operation that separates a liquid from particles floating on it or from another liquid. A common application is removing oil floating on water. These technologies are commonly used for oil spill remediation but are also commonly found in industrial applications such as removing oil from machine tool coolant and removing oil from aqueous parts washers.

T

Transboundary movement

means any movement of hazardous wastes from an area under the jurisdiction of one country to or through an area under the jurisdiction of another country or to or through an area not under the jurisdiction of any country, provided at least two countries are involved in the movement.

Transport

means off-site movement of hazardous wastes by air, rail, road or water.

Transporter

means a person engaged in the off-site transportation of hazardous waste by air, rail, road or water.

Treatment

means a method, technique or process, designed to modify the physical, chemical or biological characteristics or composition of any hazardous waste so as to reduce its potential to cause harm.

Toxic (Delayed or chronic)

Substances or wastes which, if they are inhaled or ingested or if they penetrate the skin, may involve delayed or chronic effects, including carcinogenicity).

U

Used oil

means any oil-
(a) Derived from crude oil or mixtures containing synthetic oil including used engine oil. Gear oil, hydraulic oil, turbine oil, compressor oil, industrial gear oil, heat transfer oil, transformer oil, spent oil and their tank bottom sledges.
(b) Suitable for reprocessing, if it meets the specification laid down in Part-A of Schedule-V but does not include waste oil.

W

Waste oil

means any oil which includes spills of crude oil, emulsions, tank bottom sludge and slop oil generated from petroleum refineries, installations or ships and can be used as fuel in furnaces for energy recovery, if it meets the specifications laid down in Part-B of Schedule-5 either as such or after reprocessing.

Wastewater

Water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence

X

X-RAYS

X-rays are a type of electromagnetic radiation (between ultraviolet light and gamma rays in wavelength, frequency, and energy) - basically, it's light that is way past the blue-violet end of the visible spectrum - we cannot see it. They have short wavelength (and high frequency) as compared to visible light.

Y

Yard waste

Leaves, grass clippings, pruning, and other natural organic matter discarded from yards and gardens.

Z

Zero emissions

An engine, motor or other energy source that does not produce any gas or release any harmful gases directly into the environment

Zone

An area or region more or less clearly set off or characterized as distinct from surrounding or adjoining parts

Zero liquid discharge(ZLD)

ZLD is an industrial plant without discharge of wastewaters. ZLD technology includes pretreatment and evaporation of the industrial effluent until the dissolved solids precipitate as crystals. These crystals are removed and dewatered. The water vapor from evaporation is condensed and returned to the process.